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Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of the antinociceptive effects of main active metabolites of tramadol, (+)-O-desmethyltramadol and (-)-O-desmethyltramadol, in rats.
Authors: Valle, M. (Marta)
Garrido, M.J. (María Jesús)
Pavon, J. (Juan)
Calvo, R. (Rosario)
Troconiz, I.F. (Iñaki F.)
Keywords: Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacodynamics
Tramadol
Desmethyltramadol
Antinociception
Issue Date: 2000
Publisher: Williams & Wilkins
ISSN: 0022-3565
Citation: Valle M, Garrido MJ, Pavón JM, Calvo R, Trocóniz IF. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of the antinociceptive effects of main active metabolites of tramadol, (+)-O-desmethyltramadol and (-)-O-desmethyltramadol, in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 May;293(2):646-53.
Abstract
The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the two main metabolites of tramadol, (+)-O-desmethyltramadol and (-)-O-desmethyltramadol, were studied in rats. Pharmacodynamic endpoints evaluated were respiratory depression, measured as the change in arterial blood pCO(2), pO(2), and pH levels; and antinociception, measured by the tail-flick technique. The administration of 10 mg/kg (+)-O-desmethyltramadol in a 10-min i.v. infusion significantly altered pCO(2), pO(2), and pH values in comparison with baseline and lower-dose groups (P <.05). However, 2 mg/kg administered in a 10-min i.v. infusion was enough to achieve 100% antinociception without respiratory depression. Moreover, the beta-funaltrexamine pretreatment completely eliminated the antinociception of the 2-mg/kg dose, suggesting that such an effect is due to mu-opioid receptor activation. To describe and adequately characterize the in vivo antinociceptive effect of the drug, (+)-O-desmethyltramadol was given at different infusion rates of varying lengths (10-300 min). Pharmacokinetics was best described by a two-compartmental model. The time course of response was described using an effect compartment associated with a linear pharmacodynamic model. The estimates of the slope of the effect versus concentration relationship were significantly decreased (P <. 05) as the length of infusion was increased, suggesting the development of tolerance. Doses of up to 8 mg/kg (-)-O-desmethyltramadol given in 10-min i.v. infusion did not elicit either antinociception in the tail-flick test or respiratory effects. These in vivo results are in accordance with the opiate and nonopiate properties reported for these compounds in several in vitro studies.
Permanent link: http://hdl.handle.net/10171/21764
Appears in Collections:DA - Farmacia - Tecnología Farmacéutica - Artículos de revista

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